For example, a vaginal formulation of miconazole antifungal cream might irritate the skin less than an athlete foot formulation of miconazole cream. Commercial premeasured and packed tablets and powders are available for this preparation.
You are not currently authenticated. Topical solution[ edit ] Topical solutions can be marketed as rinses, sprays, or drops, and are generally of low viscosity and often use water or alcohol in the base. Ointments are used topically on a variety of body surfaces. This is a chemical complex of iodine with polyvinylpyrrolidone, the agent being a polymer having an average molecular weight of 40, It penetrates the stratum corneum outer layer of skin wall.
This is colorless, with a faint acetous odour and sweetish taste. Povidone iodine topical solution: If defined strictly as having local effect, the topical route of administration can also include enteral administration of medications that are poorly absorbable by the gastrointestinal tract.
There is significant variability between brands. Alcohol in topical steroids can frequently cause drying if it is used as a base ingredient. The political sensitivity of elephants in Laos, at first sight, relates to the challenging identification of elephants as emblems of the former Lao kingdom that the revolution deposed in Kremmer It tends to be moderate in moisturizing tendency.
Then I shift the focus to show how the contemporary political salience of elephants in Nakai derives from underlying notions of the relations between the muang and pa.
This preparation is employed topically as a surgical scrub and non irritating antiseptic solution, with its effectiveness being directly attributed to the presence and release of iodine from the complex. To start, I outline how elephants and past royalty are linked in variable ways and how past royalty is important in Nakai as a localized rather than a national history.
This political sensitivity is not restricted to Laos and reflects how elephants are natural resources of global concern because they are simultaneously social resources that are implicated in the expression of diverse social and political ideas.
I argue that while the connotations of royalty and Buddhism are strong in urban centers and official narratives, in rural areas like Nakai the contemporary salience of former royal symbols such as elephants derives from their ability to speak to present concerns rather than necessarily denoting a strong royalist presence in the past.
These include the skin and the mucous membranes of the eye an eye ointmentchestvulvaanusand nose. It is extremely important to receive a medication in the correct base, before applying to the skin. They are often disliked by patients due to greasiness. It is applied topically as an astringent after dilution with parts of water.
Lotions can be drying if they contain a high amount of alcohol.
An ointment may or may not be medicated. They are used as emollients or for the application of active ingredients to the skin for protective, therapeutic, or prophylactic purposes and where a degree of occlusion is desired.
They can also be derived from hydrocarbon fattyabsorption, water-removable, or water-soluble bases. So this chapter, while recognizing the importance of past royalty, focuses on beliefs about elephants in Nakai—a place where the former royalty of Luang Phabang had a very minor historical presence—to show the significance of underlying notions of potency.
Aluminium acetate topical solution: It has a high rate of acceptance by patients. Cream is thicker than lotion, and maintains its shape when removed from its container.
For example, some topical steroids will be classified one or two strengths higher when moving from cream to ointment.
An example of this is the case of brand name Valisone cream and Kenalog cream in clinical studies have demonstrated significantly better vasoconstrictions than some forms of this drug produced by generic drug manufacturers. One poorly absorbable antibiotic is vancomycinwhich is recommended by mouth as a treatment for severe Clostridium difficile colitis.
Shake lotion[ edit ] A mixture that separates into two or three parts with time. They are usually an oil mixed with water, and more often than not have less alcohol than solutions.
For example, Eucerin "cream" is more appropriately described as an ointment than as a cream. There is typically little variability between brands of drugs.
Ointments are formulated using hydrophobic, hydrophilic, or water-emulsifying bases to provide preparations that are immiscible, miscible, or emulsifiable with skin secretions. No comparative potency labeling exists to ensure equal efficacy between brands of topical steroids percentage of oil vs water dramatically affect the potency of topical steroid.
The natural potential of elephants underlies the nationwide significance of these animals in Laos and thus ensures their continuing political salience and complexity.The Potency Of Film Derives From Its Ability To Successfully Depict Characters Surmounting Crisis possibilities that film uses to provoke ideals and demonstrate human reality that does not always mean surmounting crisis.
A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body. Most often topical administration means application to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes to treat ailments via a large range of classes including creams, foams, gels, lotions, and ointments.
. The word topical derives from Greek This greatly increases the potency and absorption of the topical steroid and is used to treat inflammatory skin diseases. Vapor.
Some medications are applied as an ointment or gel, and reach the mucous membrane via vaporization.
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